Diwata, based on Sanskrit devata and also known as encantada from Spanish, is a dryad-like spirit which is benevolent or neutral and invoked ritually for positive crop growth, health, and fortune; they may also incur illness or misfortune if not given proper respect. They are said to reside in large trees, such as acacia and balete and are the guardian spirits of nature, casting blessings or curses upon those who bring benefits or harm to the forests and mountains. They have their origin in the Devata beings included in Hinduism and Buddhism. The Laguna Copperplate dated 900 AD also makes mention of a Chief of Medang in Java, Indonesia referred as representative of the Chief of Diwata in Butuan, Mindanao island.
The term « diwata » has taken on various levels of meaning since its concept’s assimilation into the mythology of the pre-colonial Filipinos. It is sometimes loosely used to refer to a generic type of beings much like « elf » or « fairy, » or very specific ones as mentioned above. It has been noted that the term « diwata » is synonymous to « anito, » and that the usage of the word « diwata » is more prevalent in the Southern Philippines, while « anito » takes its place in the Northern areas.source: wikipedia
Tikbalang is a creature of Philippine folklore said to lurk in the mountains and forests of the Philippines. It is generally described as a tall, bony humanoid creature with disproportionately long limbs, to the point that its knees reach above its head when it squats down. It has the head and feet of an animal, most commonly a horse. It is sometimes believed to be a transformation of an aborted fetus which has been sent to earth from limbo.source: wikipedia
The Manananggal (sometimes confused with the Wak Wak) is a vampire-like mythical creature of the Philippines, a malevolent, man-eating and blood-sucking monster or witch.
The manananggal is described as hideous, scary, often depicted as female, and capable of severing its upper torso and sprouting huge bat-like wings to fly into the night in search of its victims. The word manananggal comes from the Tagalog word tanggal(cognate of Malay tanggal), which means « to remove » or « to separate », which literally translates as « remover » or « separator ». In this case, « one who separates itself ». The name also originates from an expression used for a severed torso.
The manananggal is said to favor preying on sleeping, pregnant women, using an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck the hearts of fetuses, or the blood of someone who is sleeping. The severed lower torso is left standing, and is the more vulnerable of the two halves. Sprinkling salt, smearing crushed garlic or ash on top of the standing torso is fatal to the creature. The upper torso then would not be able to rejoin itself and would perish by sunrise.source: wikipedia
An Aswang is a vampire-like witch ghoul in Filipino folklore and is the subject of a wide variety of myths and stories. Spanish colonists noted that the Aswang was the most feared among the mythical creatures of the Philippines,even in the 16th century.
The myth of the aswang is well known throughout the Philippines, except in the Ilocos region, which is the only region that does not have an equivalent myth. It is especially popular in the Visayan regions such as Capiz, Iloilo, Negros, Bohol, Aklan, Antique, and Siquijor. Other regional names for the aswang include « tik-tik », « wak-wak », « sok-sok », and « kling-kling »source: wikipedia
The Bakunawa, also spelled Bakonawa, Baconaua, or Bakonaua, is a dragon inPhilippine mythology that is often represented as a gigantic sea serpent. It is believed to be the cause of eclipses. It appears as a giant sea serpent with a mouth the size of a lake, a red tongue, whiskers, gills, small wires at its sides, and two sets of wings, one is large and ash-gray while the other is small and is found further down its body.
Tales about the Tabashie say that it is the cause of eclipses. During ancient times, Filipinos believe that there are seven moons created by Bathala to light up the sky. The Tabashie, amazed by their beauty, would rise from the ocean and swallow the moons whole, angering Bathala and causing them to be mortal enemies.source: wikipedia
The Mantiw are thirty foot spirits in Iloilo, Panay often spotted whistling while roaming the wide open fields, or leaning against coconut and buri palm trees. Witnesses describe them as having a fair complexion, broad shoulders, and hooked noses. Despite being commonly reserved and peaceful in nature, the Mantiw are easily offended when a human attempts to whistle along with them. As a result, it will grab the whistling human it finds a nuisance, carry them off to the tallest coconut tree and abandon them on the very top without means of climbing back down. source:theaswangproject
Kapre is a Philippine mythical creature that could be characterized as a tree demon. It is described as being a tall (7 to 9 ft), dark, muscular creature. Kapres are normally described as having a strong smell that would attract human attention. The term kapre comes from the Arabic « kafir », meaning a non-believer in Islam. The early Arabs and the Moors used it to refer to the non-Muslim Dravidians who were dark-skinned and went to war against. The term was later brought to the Philippines by the Spanish who had previous contact with the Moors. Some historians speculate that the legend was propagated by the Spanish to prevent Filipinos from assisting any escaped African slaves they sometimes imported from Latin-America. The Kapre itself holds a large Cigar, an item which originated from the ancient Mayans of Latin-America. The similar dark skin color of escaped African slaves from Latin America to Dravidians from South India have caused the former to be equated with the latter.source: wikipedia
The Tiyanak (also Tianak or Tianac) is a vampiric creature in Philippine mythology that imitates the form of a child. It usually takes the form of a newborn baby and cries like one in the jungle to attract unwary travelers. Once it is picked up by the victim, it reverts to its true form and attacks the victim. The tiyanak is also depicted to take malevolent delight in leading travelers astray, or in abducting children.
There are various stories on how tiyanaks came to being. The Mandaya people of Mindanao claim that the tiyanak is the spirit of a child whose mother died before giving birth. This caused it to be « born in the ground », thus gaining its current state. A similar supernatural creature in Malay folklore is the Pontianak, which was a woman who died before giving birth.
With the Spanish colonization of the Philippines in the 16th century, the tiyanak myth was integrated into Christianity. The tiyanak in the Christian version were supposedly the souls of infants that died before being baptized. In modern-day Philippines, this definition has extended to that of aborted fetuses that returned from death to seek revenge on those who deprived them of life.source: wikipedia